Chinese Eremiticism and Reclusion:
A Bibliography of Resources in English


Berkowitz, Alan. Patterns of Disengagement: the Practice and Portrayal of Reclusion in Early Medieval China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Davis A. R. The Narrow Lane: Some Observations on the Recluse in Traditional Chinese Society. (Twelfth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. ) Canberra: Australian University, 1983.

Vervoorn, Aat. Men of the Cliffs and Caves: The Development of the Chinese Eremitic Tradition to the End of the Han Dynasty. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1990.


Bauer, Wolfgang. The Hidden Hero: Creation and Disintegration of the Ideal of Eremitism. in Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, edited by Donald Munro, p. 157-197. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 1985.

Berkowitz, Alan. Eremiticism in China. Journal of Asian and African Studies. February 1999, v. 34, p. 46+

---------. Reclusion and the Chinese Eremitic Tradition. Journal of the American Oriental Society.October-December 1993, v. 113, no. 4, p. 575-585.

---------. Topos and Entelechy in the Ethos of Reclusion in China. Journal of the American Oriental Society. October-December 1994, v. 114, no. 4, p. 632-639.

---------. The Exemplar State: Ideology, Self-cultivation, and Power in Fourth-century China. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. June 1989, v. 49, no.1, p. 93+ (47 pages)

---------. The Moral Hero: A Pattern of Reclusion in Traditional China. Monumenta Serica, 1992, v. 40, p. 1-23.

---------. Hidden Spoor: Ruan Xiao Xu and His Treatise on Reclusion. Journal of the American Oriental Society. October-December 1991, v. 111, no. 4, p. 704+ (8 pages)

Li Chi. The Changing Concept of the Recluse in Chinese Literature. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1962-63, v. 24, p. 234-247.

Mote, Frederick W. Confucian Eremitism in the Yuan Period. in The Confucian Persuasion, edited by Arthur F. Wright. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1980. Reprinted from Confucianism and Chinese Civilization, edited by Arthur F. Wright, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1964., p 252-290.

Tu Wei-ming, Towards an Understanding of Liu Yin's Confucian Eremitism. in Yuan Thought: Chinese Thought and Religion under the Mongols. Hak-lam Chan and William Theodore de Bary, editors. New York, Columbia University Press, 1982.

Verwoorn, Aat. The Origins of Chinese Eremitism. Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies of he Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1984. p. 249-285.